Cosmetic Surgery Tips

Progressive tension sutures tummy tuck

The Progressive tension suture tummy tuck is a safe and effective procedure for removing excess skin and tightening of the abdominal muscles. This is a minimally invasive cosmetic surgery technique that can be performed with local anesthesia, sedation or general anesthesia. The procedure is performed in the doctor’s office under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia.

The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis, and you will be able to go home immediately following surgery. The cost of this procedure varies depending on the area of your body that needs to be tightened, but it costs approximately $3,000-$4,000 USD in most cases. In this guide, we review the aspects of Progressive tension sutures tummy tuck, tension sutures technique, tension sutures indications, and tension suture meaning.

Progressive tension sutures tummy tuck

Progressive tension sutures are used to reinforce the abdominal wall in a tummy tuck.

The surgeon uses these sutures to create a continuous line of tension across the abdomen, making it possible to pull the skin tight around the area of surgery. This can be helpful in reducing post-surgical swelling.

Progressive tension sutures are used to tighten the skin of the abdomen after a tummy tuck. The suture is placed in the tissues, which causes them to contract and tighten over time. The sutures can be removed at any time, but it’s best to leave them in place for at least six months.

The belly tuck is an operation that involves removing excess skin and tightening the abdomen. It is a popular cosmetic surgery procedure for women, but it can also be done to men who want to enhance their appearance.

Progressive tension sutures are used to tighten the skin of your abdomen and remove excess fat from below your belly button. This leaves you with a smaller, firmer abdominal wall that will fit your body better.

The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, so you will feel little to no pain during the procedure. It usually takes about an hour or two to complete, depending on how much work needs to be done.

A tummy tuck is a procedure that removes excess skin and fat from the abdomen, or middle section of the body. Tummy tucks are usually performed to correct sagging skin in the lower abdomen, which can be caused by weight loss or pregnancy.

Preoperative preparation is crucial to ensuring that your results will be as natural as possible. If you have loose abdominal skin, it will be more difficult to tighten after surgery. We recommend that you discuss your concerns with your surgeon before your procedure so we can make sure that you’re happy with the outcome.

After surgery, you will stay in the hospital for at-home recovery. You should expect swelling, bruising and pain for up to a week after surgery. You may experience some numbness in the area of surgery for several weeks following the procedure until nerve endings begin to regenerate themselves. If you have questions about post-operative care, don’t hesitate to ask!

Progressive tension sutures are a very effective option for tummy tuck patients. They provide a natural look, and they are simple to use.

Progressive tension sutures are made of absorbable materials, which means that they can be easily removed at the end of your procedure. The suture is left in place for two to four weeks before being removed.

When using progressive tension sutures for a tummy tuck, it’s important to take care not to pull too hard on the skin during the procedure. Pulling too hard will cause the tissue to stretch, which can lead to poor healing and an unnatural look.

Progressive tension sutures are a great option for tummy tucks. They can be used to tighten the abdominal wall, which is crucial in creating a firmer, more toned stomach.

These sutures are also used to create a flatter wall, and they can also be used to tighten skin that has been stretched too much during surgery.

Progressive tension sutures are used in the treatment of tummy tuck patients. These sutures are inserted through a small incision and come to rest on a tensioned needle, which is then moved back and forth from the waistline to the lower abdomen. The sutures are then anchored to the abdominal wall using staples or clips.

Progressive tension sutures have several advantages over traditional Marlex sutures, such as:

-They do not require skin resection

-They can be removed with less discomfort than traditional Marlex sutures

Progressive tension sutures are used to help patients achieve a natural-looking result after a tummy tuck. The exact number of sutures needed is determined by your surgeon based on how much skin you need to remove and how much tissue needs to be replaced.

Progressive tension sutures are used in the tummy tuck procedure. You can use them to create a more natural look, as they help to reduce the visible telltale signs of surgery.

The Progressive tension suture tummy tuck is a liposuction procedure that removes excess skin and fat from the abdomen, hips, thighs and back. This procedure is a great option for patients who have loose skin or excess fat. It is also an excellent treatment option for patients who are trying to reduce their waistline without undergoing abdominal surgery.

Progressive tension sutures are placed in an area of the body where there is excessive skin and fat. The sutures are then tightened over time to remove the excess tissue from the body. Over time, you will see your results become more noticeable as your skin tightens and contours to your body.

Progressive tension sutures have many benefits over other types of tummy tucks:

-They don’t require any incisions or stitches on your body

-They don’t use any anesthesia which means less downtime for you

-There won’t be any swelling following this procedure since it doesn’t require any anesthesia

The Progressive tension suture tummy tuck is a surgical procedure that removes excess skin and fat from the abdominal area. It is performed under local anesthesia and is completed in one day. The doctor will make an incision on the abdomen, allowing them to remove excess skin and fat. Afterward, they will close the incision with dissolvable sutures.

Progressive tension suture tummy tuck is a procedure that involves the use of a large number of sutures to tighten the skin and muscles of your abdomen. This type of surgery is ideal for patients who are looking to get rid of excess fat and improve their overall appearance.

Progressive tension sutures are used to suture the tissue around a wound. This is usually done after a tummy tuck but can also be used for other procedures, such as breast reduction or liposuction.

Progressive tension sutures are made of nylon and come in different sizes. The smallest size is called a “0” and is used for small wounds that are more than 1 cm wide. The next size up is a “9” and it’s used for larger wounds that are more than 9 cm wide. Finally, there’s an “18” which should only be used when your wound has exceeded 18 cm in width.

The type of stitch you use depends on what kind of tissue you’re trying to suture together: if it’s skin, then you’ll use an “8” or “10.” If it’s fat tissue, then you’ll need to use an “11” or bigger.

Progressive tension sutures for the abdomen are used to:

-Remove excess skin or fat from the abdomen, typically after a tummy tuck

-Close wounds that result from abdominal surgery

-Sutures can be used to help prevent hernias

Progressive tension sutures tummy tuck

Progressive tension sutures tummy tuck is a surgical procedure that uses sutures to create a “tummy tuck” or a “abdominoplasty.” It tightens the abdominal muscles, helping to reduce the appearance of loose skin around the waist.

The procedure can be performed as an outpatient surgery, with little to no downtime required. The patient will likely need some form of anesthesia during the surgery as well. Additionally, this procedure should not be performed on obese patients due to the potential for complications such as wound infection and blood loss.

The progressive tension suture tummy tuck is a surgical procedure that uses the belly button as a reference point to tighten sagging skin and remove excess skin. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, so you won’t feel any kind of pain once the surgery has finished.

Progressive tension sutures are used to create a new “tummy tuck” from your belly button to your natural waistline as you heal from your surgical procedure. The idea behind this technique is to give your body time to heal from the incision site before tightening it up with sutures.

This technique works by creating small, gradual changes in tension on your skin, which causes it to naturally tighten up over time. This means that you won’t have any scars or marks on your abdomen after completing the procedure.

Progressive tension sutures are a popular method of tummy tuck surgery. They are less invasive than traditional methods, but there are some drawbacks.

Progressive tension sutures can be used to tighten the skin around the waist area, creating a more youthful look. These sutures require no staples and can be removed after 24 hours, so they are a great option for those with sensitive skin or who want to avoid the downtime associated with traditional surgical methods.

Another benefit of progressive tension sutures is that they don’t require any incisions or stitches. The surgeon simply uses suture material to create tiny pockets in the skin where he or she will place the suture material. Then, once all of the pockets have been filled with suture material (and are firm), they are closed with another type of stitch called a running loop stitch. After this procedure, your skin will be tighter and more resilient than before!

Progressive tension sutures are an excellent option for tummy tuck patients who want the most natural appearance possible. These sutures are made from collagen, which breaks down over time, leaving your body with the same structure as a scar. By using progressive tension sutures, you can see the results of your tummy tuck sooner than with traditional tummy tucks.

Progressive tension sutures are a great option for patients who have excess skin and fat that needs to be removed from the abdominal area. These sutures are placed through small incisions, and then pulled tight to tighten the skin and remove excess tissue.

Progressive tension sutures are used in the body of a tummy tuck to achieve a long-term result. The body of a tummy tuck is made up of 2 layers. The upper layer is called the dermis, and it’s where most of the fat is stored. This layer of skin is also responsible for producing collagen and elastin, which give your skin firmness and elasticity. The belly tuck must be done on an area with minimal to no fat or muscle to make it possible to pull off this procedure successfully.

The lower layer of skin is called the subcutaneous tissue, which has no blood supply and can’t be seen by the naked eye. It also contains fat tissue, which causes it to expand when stretched out (think about how a balloon stretches). When you get liposuction performed on your lower abdomen, you’re removing some subcutaneous tissue that’s under your skin but not visible at all—just like how a balloon would disappear if you put one on top of another balloon without stretching it first!

When you’ve finished removing enough subcutaneous tissue from your lower abdomen, it will contract back into place after being stretched out. This contraction process takes time

Progressive tension sutures are used in tummy tucks to lift the abdomen and tighten it. With this procedure, the surgeon will create a pocket of tissue around the waistline. The pocket is then filled with saline to add volume to the new tissue, which can be removed later for a tighter, flatter abdomen.

When you need a tummy tuck, it’s important to use the right sutures. The best sutures for tummy tucks are progressive tension sutures.

Progressive tension sutures are designed to stretch as they’re pulled through your skin. This gives them the ability to hold together your abdominal muscles while they heal, without causing any damage or separation of tissue. They also don’t require any additional tying techniques—they’re easy to apply and remove.

Progressive tension sutures are used for tummy tuck procedures. They’re stronger than other types of sutures and have the ability to stretch and contract with your body’s movements. This makes them more comfortable than other types of sutures and less likely to cause an allergic reaction.

Progressive tension sutures are used to create a natural look. They are typically used in a tummy tuck procedure, but they can also be used to correct ptosis or droopy eyelids. These sutures are sewn into the skin and moved as the patient’s body forms, making them one of the most effective tools for creating a natural-looking result.

tension sutures technique

The interrupted horizontal and vertical mattress suture techniques are two of the most commonly used skin closure methods.1–3 These techniques provide many advantages, including the closure of wounds under tension when wound edges must be brought together over a distance. Mattress sutures are often performed as the anchoring stitch for skin flap closure.1 Mattress suture techniques also promote skin edge eversion.1–8 Because scars tend to retract over time, eversion of the wound edges at the time of closure promotes less prominent scarring. Eversion produced by the mattress sutures is valuable when closing sites with edges that tend to roll under, such as on the posterior neck or in the groin.

The techniques, indications, and pitfalls related to the standard mattress sutures are demonstrated in this article. One variation of the horizontal mattress suture, the half-buried horizontal mattress or corner stitch, is included because of its great usefulness in office closures. All of the suture techniques discussed in this article make use of nonabsorbable suture material.1,4

Vertical Mattress Suture

The main indication for use of vertical mattress sutures is to evert the skin edges.1–8 By incorporating a large amount of tissue within the passage of the suture loops, the technique permits greater closure strength and better distribution of wound tension.1,3 The vertical mattress suture is commonly used in body sites where the wound edges tend to invert, such as the posterior neck or wounds that occur on a concave surface. Some authors believe that a properly placed vertical mattress suture everts wound edges better than any other suture technique.5

The vertical mattress suture uses the far-far, near-near system (Figure 1). The far-far suture placement passes 4 to 8 mm from the wound edge, fairly deep in the wound below the dermis.1 Prior undermining of the wound edges facilitates the placement of the sutures. Following the far-far passage of the needle across both sides of the wound, and before the suture is tied, the needle is placed backwards in the needle driver. The near-near placement occurs at a shallow depth (about 1 mm) and should be in the upper dermis. The near-near placement should be within 1 to 2 mm of the wound edge. Following the near-near passage of the needle, both ends of the suture thread should be tied on one side of the wound. These ends are tied so that the knot is on the side where the suture passage began.

The vertical mattress suture should be tied snugly, but gently. Excessive pull on the knot will create more eversion of the edges and produce excess tension and scarring. This excess tension also can tear the skin at the near-near placement site. Necrosis of the skin beneath the externalized loops of the vertical mattress suture has been noted when the knot is tied too tightly. In addition, the natural process of wound inflammation and scar retraction will pull loops of suture that lie on the skin surface downward. This pull results in small skin scars that have been given a variety of names, including cross-hatching, railroad marks, or Frankenstein marks. The tendency to create these scars limits the use of vertical mattress sutures in cosmetically sensitive areas, such as the face.

The choice of suture material also influences scar formation, because materials with a large diameter (2-0 or 3-0 absorbable) produce greater skin injury than small-caliber (5-0 or 6-0) suture material.1 Early removal of sutures can minimize the effect of cross-hatching, but care must be taken to prevent the wound from opening (wound dehiscence). Mattress sutures can be alternated with simple interrupted sutures; in this case, the mattress sutures can be removed first.

Placement of deep, buried subcutaneous sutures is commonly advocated to reduce the tension on skin sutures, close dead space beneath a wound, and allow for early suture removal. Many authorities recommend placement of the deep buried suture whenever possible. When placement of subcutaneous sutures is not advocated (e.g., facial flaps), the skin sutures may need to remain in place for a longer time. Table 1 gives general guidelines for suture removal times.

The vertical mattress suture should be symmetrically placed. If the loops of suture are not placed at equal depths and equidistantly from the wound edge, the wound may come together with one edge higher than the other, creating a shelf that usually results in a cosmetically and functionally inferior scar.1,5 Shelves on a vertical surface such as the face tend to produce final scars that cast a shadow. Interrupted vertical mattress sutures should be removed from most wounds in four to six days.8

Some physicians prefer a near-near, far-far technique. The near-near pass is made, and the suture threads lifted for placement of the far-far pass. Novice physicians may tear the wound edge by lifting a superficially placed (near-near) suture thread if this technique is used. To avoid tearing, near-near placement is often performed at a deeper or wider level, but this often reduces skin edge eversion. The far-far, near-near technique is advocated to avoid this problem.

Horizontal Mattress Suture

The horizontal mattress suture is an everting suture technique that spreads tension along a wound edge.1,6,7 This technique is commonly used for pulling wound edges together over a distance, or as the initial suture to anchor two wound edges (holding sutures).1,3,7 These sutures, like the vertical mattress sutures, incorporate a large amount of tissue within the passage of the suture thread, and they can serve as effective initial sutures in holding skin flaps in place.1,3 The suture is also effective in holding fragile skin together, such as the skin of an elderly patient or a patient receiving chronic steroid therapy.

The horizontal mattress suture (Figure 2) is initiated by inserting the needle about 4 to 8 mm from the wound edge, slightly farther from the wound edge than for placement of simple interrupted sutures. The needle passes through to the opposite wound edge, where it exits the skin. The needle is placed backwards in the needle driver, inserted into the skin about 4 to 8 mm farther down that edge (the edge where the needle has just been passed through), and passed from the far side of the wound back to the near side. The needle exits the skin about 4 to 8 mm down the original wound edge from the original insertion site. The suture is tied gently on the side of the wound where the suturing began.

The extracutaneous loops of suture material (suture on the surface of the skin) tend to compress the epidermis. If the suture is tied tightly, these loops of suture material can actually cause strangulation, necrosis, and scarring of the skin.1 Some authors advocate the use of bolsters (Figure 3), or compressible cushions, beneath the suture loops.1,3,5,7 Plastic tubing, cardboard, and gauze are materials that are commonly used for bolsters.1

Because of the tissue contained within the passage of the suture thread, horizontal mattress sutures are effective hemostatic sutures on vascular tissues such as the scalp.1 In addition, these sutures are highly effective for closure of thin skin, such as in the finger- and toe-web spaces, or on the eyelid, using a small-caliber (6-0) suture material.

Because of the risk of scarring from horizontal mattress sutures, some authorities recommend that they be removed as early as three to five days after placement. Early suture removal is especially important in cosmetically important areas. If the horizontal mattress suture is surrounded by simple interrupted sutures, the mattress sutures can be removed early, and the remaining sutures can be removed later, in a time frame appropriate to the body location.

Corner Stitch

A variation of the horizontal mattress suture, the half-buried horizontal mattress suture, or corner stitch, is commonly used in closures performed in the office.1 The corner stitch (Figure 4) is used to approximate angled skin flaps or corners without compromising blood supply to the tissue tip.1,3,8,9 This suture technique avoids the tedious task of trying to place small sutures to hold both edges of a corner down without crossing any of the sutures near the tip.3,5

The standard corner stitch is used for closure of tissue corners with an approximate 90-degree angle. Many variations of the corner stitch can be applied to close a variety of complex wounds, tissue with multiple corners, or skin flaps. Closure of Y-shaped or X-shaped wounds (Figure 5) is often accomplished with a corner stitch used for the central corners.

The corner suture is best initiated near an imaginary line that bisects the tissue opposite the tissue corner. This allows the pull of the tissue directly into the corner, and not off to one side. A plumb line drawn opposite the corner will help guide the start and finish of the corner stitch (Figure 6). The needle enters the skin next to the plumb line (1 to 2 mm from the line) about 6 to 8 mm from the corner. The needle passes to the wound edge about 4 to 6 mm from the corner. It enters into the wound at the depth of the deep dermis, not beneath the dermis.

The corner flap is elevated with Adson forceps (pick-ups), and the needle is passed from one edge of the flap to the opposite edge of the flap. The needle passes through the deepest portion of the flap dermis, about 4 mm from the corner tip. After passing through the corner, the needle can be placed backward in the needle holder. The needle then passes about 4 to 6 mm from the corner into the deep dermis of the opposite edge from where the needle previously passed. The needle exits the skin on the opposite side of the plumb line,6 to 8 mm from the corner. The suture is tied gently, allowing the tip to fit snugly into the corner. If the suture is tied too tightly, the corner tends to buckle.

tension sutures indications

Continuing Education Activity

Wound management is an essential part of emergency medicine practice. The clinicians care for wounds ranging from minor and simple lacerations or abrasions to complex wounds. Wound closure techniques have evolved significantly and now range from simple sutures to adhesive compounds, and techniques have also improved. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of wounds and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patients with different types of wounds and their respective closure.

Objectives: Describe the major wound closure techniques.Summarize the three underlying principles of proper suture technique.Outline risk factors that may produce less than optimal wound healing.Explain the importance of collaboration and communication amongst the interprofessional team to ensure the appropriate selection of candidates for wound closure and its technique. Access free multiple choice questions on this topic.

Introduction

Wound management is an essential part of emergency medicine practice. The clinicians care for wounds ranging from minor and simple lacerations or abrasions to complex wounds. Wound closure techniques have evolved significantly and now range from simple sutures to adhesive compounds, and techniques have also improved. For injuries that require further management, it is imperative to assess the wound and determine how best to treat it. Multiple techniques can be used for wound closure. These include sutures, staples, and adhesives.

For many minor wounds, sutures are the gold-standard method for closure. In a case where you have a linear laceration located on the scalp or extremities, it is a reasonable alternative to use staples. The advantage is that they can be placed quickly. This is immensely useful in situations where there is brisk bleeding and in mass casualty settings where there are multiple wounds to which to attend. They are also widely used to close postoperative incised wounds. Staples are cost-effective, easily placed, require minimal training, and have similar healing times and infection rates as sutures.

In primary wound closure, sutures are the standard of care. There are two types of sutures, absorbable and non-absorbable. Non-absorbable sutures are preferred because they provide great tensile strength, and the body’s chemicals will not dissolve them during the natural healing process. Non-absorbable sutures are used primarily to close superficial wounds; whereas, absorbable sutures can be placed in a double layer closure for deeper wounds. In doing so, absorbable sutures help decrease the tension and better approximate the wound edges. This will allow for a lower risk of wound dehiscence and a more aesthetically pleasing outcome. Synthetic sutures tend to have a problem with “memory.” That is, they tend to retain the shape of their packaging. This can potentially make it difficult to manipulate the suture during wound closure.

The choice of suture and technique depends on the type of wound, depth, degree of tension, and desired cosmetic results. Simple interrupted sutures have the advantage of more cosmetically appealing results, as the use of separate stitches allows for a better approximation of the skin and fascia. They provide greater tensile strength and have less risk of injuring cutaneous circulation. Also, in the case of an infection, the entire length of sutures would not need to come out.

For rapid hemorrhage control or long wounds with minimal tension, running sutures are the best choice. They can be applied quickly and spread tension along the wound. The disadvantage of running sutures is the risk of dehiscence if part of the suture material ruptures. This would cause the entire length of the suture to unravel.

For a wound that is deeper in nature, a mattress stitch can be placed, providing better strength. The deeper penetration into the skin layers minimizes tension and allowing for better closure at the wound edges. They can be thrown in as temporary stitches are removed after the tension is more evenly distributed across the wound. If there is still tension after wound closure, the mattress stitch can be left in place to decrease the risk of dehiscence. Mattress sutures can be applied as vertical or horizontal subtypes.

Sutures can also be applied with a subcuticular technique. It can be done either as a simple suture or continuous sutures. The skin is not pierced and thus has the ability to produce better aesthetic results. Care should be taken when applying these sutures as to the depth of the wound because they can form a potential cavity beneath the suture line if the wound is deep.

In percutaneous wounds or simple pediatric cases, skin glues are particularly useful as they are quick and relatively painless. Adhesive tapes and skin glues are a useful adjunct to deeper sutures too. They are cause minimal wound inflammation, have a lower infection rate than sutures, and are removed easily.

Regardless of which wound closure technique the responder chooses, it is important to remember that to achieve a thoroughly healed incision with minimum scarring; one should be mindful of the following:

The goals of wound management are to avoid infection, tamponade the bleeding, and provide a better cosmetic outcome.

Function

There are four distinct stages of wound healing which are (1) hemostasis, (2) inflammatory phase, (3) proliferative (“rebuilding”) phase, and (4) maturation phase. The wound closure or healing occurs through three different methods, as mentioned below. Regardless of the method used, the wound will heal by going through the above mentioned four phases.

Primary intention healing is when the wound edges are brought and kept together by sutures or staples. The healing occurs with wound epithelization and connective tissue deposition. This allows for lower infection rates. In the case of wound healing by secondary intention, the wounds heal by leaving them open and allowing for granulation tissue to form contraction of the wound edges and eventual epithelialization. Typically, this is seen with chronic wounds. These take longer to heal due to the volume of tissue needed to fill the defect. Healing by secondary intention puts the patient at risk for more infections as there is no epidermal barrier. The third one is healing by tertiary intention, also known as delayed primary closure, which involves delayed closure of a wound after a period of time, varying in different cases, for which the wound has been left open. These wounds are grossly contaminated but do not have significant tissue loss, and can potentially be closed after the wound is thoroughly explored, irrigated, debrided, and observed for 3 to 7 days before surgical closure or skin grafting.

In the process of wound healing, nutrition, lifestyle, medications, and infections all play a significant role. Active children and adults who exercise regularly tend to have better circulation and heal quicker due to better oxygenation and nourishment provided to the wound. Also, smoking limits the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and has been linked to forming clots, all of which can inhibit the wound healing process. Medications such as steroids, blood thinners, or antineoplastic agents tend to prolong healing as well.

Issues of Concern

Wound closure is not a painless event, and some anesthesia should be provided. For small wounds, lidocaine with epinephrine will suffice. The addition of epinephrine not only causes vasoconstriction and limits blood loss but also increases the duration of the anesthetic. An additional benefit of epinephrine is that it delays the absorption of anesthetic agents, thus allowing for a larger dose of the particular agent to be administered. However, it is vital not to inject epinephrine around the ears, the tip of the nose, penis, and distal phalanges. Otherwise, tissue necrosis can occur. Bupivacaine is a longer-acting anesthetic agent and can be used in cases requiring anesthesia for a longer period of time due to its long half-life. The clinician must know about the safe dosage of these agents.

It is also important to know when not to close the wound. Some wounds best heal by secondary intention. When the wound is dirty, or there is significant tissue loss, wound closure should be delayed. The immediate closure of animal and human bites is not recommended, and these wounds should be left open as this can lead to florid infection.

Clinical Significance

Anyone who closes wounds should understand sutures. Unfortunately, no suture is ideal for every wound, and in most cases, several types of sutures are required to close the wound adequately. Today there are natural, synthetic, absorbable, non-absorbable, multifilament, and monofilament sutures available. Synthetic sutures are preferred around the face as they cause a limited reaction, and inflammation is minimized. Absorbable sutures are used in areas where there is no need for extensive support, and the wound heals faster, and these are also used in internal layers. Non-absorbable sutures are used when one wants continued mechanical support. Monofilaments are less susceptible to infection but can be traumatized by surgical instruments. The multifilaments can sustain infections, but they are prone to tangles.

Proper suture technique should incorporate three major principles, including proper distribution of tension to the deeper layers, atraumatic handling of tissues, and eversion of wound margins.

Other Issues

Complications can arise in this procedure as in any other procedure. Immediate complications may involve a hematoma formation due to poor hemostatic control. Human bites and some animal bites, particularly felines, have a very high chance of getting infecting early on. Antibiotics are imperative for such bite wounds, and these should be thoroughly cleansed. Late complications may involve scar formation due to improper technique. An unfortunate outcome in some people may be hypertrophic scars and keloid formation. Wound necrosis may also ensue in rare cases.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Multiple members of the interprofessional healthcare team should know when to close wounds and when to leave them open. This includes surgeons, other clinicians, including PAs and NPs, nurses, and surgical assistants. Premature closure of infected or contaminated wounds usually leads to prolonged hospitalization and higher healthcare costs. There are many wound closure techniques, and it is important to be familiar with them, as all of them have certain indications and contraindications. Once a wound is closed, the patient must be monitored to ensure that healing occurs without complications. With interprofessional team approaches to wound closure, the patient stands a better chance for a positive outcome with less risk of infection and other adverse events.

tension suture meaning

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